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In this article, the role of LNG is analysed within a necessary background of the climate change mitigation policy of the international community in general and the EU in particular. The Baltic Sea countries are an important part of the energy transition process, although their energy balances and production-import mixes for energy supplies vary greatly. They comprise from coal as an essential part of the energy base to a bold attempt to reduce the production-related emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). Consumption-related emissions are not targeted per se, while they are definitely affected through general measures on increasing effectiveness and technological ways and means. Natural gas is seen as ‘a missed bridge’ between oil plus coal and renewable energy sources (RES) since the political aspects and climate policies have created an unusual change of energy regimes. This change is based on the restrictions from the intergovernmental decisions made before technological and commercial backgrounds have been secured. In contrast, a more rational approach would be based on the existing cost-effectiveness. LNG may become victimised as ‘an innocent bystander’ because of the additional emission vis-à-vis pipeline gas. The EU’s decision on the dramatic reduction of reliance on all fossil fuels by 2030 and later on has become a game-changer: there will be no big gas market in the EU after the expiration of long-term contracts with Gazprom in the 2030s. The new development makes most debates on gas supplies in the Baltic Sea region (and on LNG as a part of them) obsolete and strictly political. From now on, governmental policies will be drifting to domestic policies on coal, expecting success in developing hydrogen technologies, and seeking the financing of additional investment and current costs, invoking these dramatic changes in the 2020s. The Green Deal will free Baltic Sea region countries (at some costs) from fossil fuels, including natural gas and LNG. And the latter will be deprived in a decade or two from any role, controversial or not.
This paper is aimed at the development of a tool analysing the AAI results for the Russian older citizens from different population groups, as well as at identifying factors underlying the inequalities in active ageing outcomes by calculation the AAI on the national and individual levels. The adaptation of the methodology of the AAI to the individual-level data and the limitations of the approach are explicitly explained. The older generations of Russia show relatively high levels of education, financial security and engagement in family care, especially in the care to children. The most significant potential for development have employment, volunteering, political engagement, physical activity, lifelong learning and use of the Internet. The calculation of the AAI at the individual level has revealed significant inequalities in the degree of realisation of potential in different areas of active ageing. The results of the project provide scientific evidence for the implementation of policy measures in the target groups. The high correlation of the index values with human capital indicators (health and education) underlines the importance of the early interventions aimed at promoting and supporting human capital at the earlier stages of the life course till the old age. The substantial positive connection of employment with other forms of activity stresses the necessity of developing a package of activation policy measures aimed at the retention of older adults in the labour market. At the same time, the statistical analysis showed the absence of a “dilemma of choice” between certain types of activity of the older generation, for example, between caring for grandchildren and employment, or employment and volunteering - the potential in different areas may be increased simultaneously.
This book tries to debate on the significance of circular economy, underlying the necessity to change our way of producing, consuming, and traveling on a daily basis. The passage from a linear economy to a circular economy will help us to reduce the degradation of the environment for avoiding future disastrous consequences, such as depletion of biodiversity, scarcity of raw materials and drinking water, rising waters, etc. The circular economy, therefore, involves designing a product so that it can be recycled or its components reused. Reuse consists of introducing the product back into the economic circuit in its original condition; repair makes it possible to fix a broken good; and recovery consists of reusing its components. This is the significance of the so-called 3R strategy, illustrated in this book.
The article is based on the research in mobile applications markets. The distribution of market power in these markets depends on the ability of a digital ecosystem’s owner to control the handling of mobile applications inside the ecosystem. The degree of this control is determined by the substitutability of different application stores as necessary facilities for the access to mobile applications. The authors provide the survey-based empirical estimates of such substitutability for Apple’s mobile application store - App Store. The results of further tests for market boundaries delineation confirm the embeddedness of final users in Apple’s ecosystem in absence of feasible opportunities to change the operating system and, consequently, the application store. The findings explain the degree of Apple’s market power and provide grounds for antitrust intervention.
The article proposes methodological approaches to the verification of indicators of the state of thecountry’s economic security using the method of fractal analysis. Fractal analysis technologies make it pos-sible to determine the nature and dynamics of changes in the indicator, to verify its values (indicative or crit-ical), and also to reveal the rate at which these states are reached on the time horizon of statistical observa-tions. The unemployment rate indicator is selected as an example.
Blended Foresight approach for global bio trends
This book seeks to open the box of emission pathways, by considering the multidimensional feasibility conditions-i.e. the technical, economic, political, social and institutional- that will enable the required far-reaching and systemic transformation towards the long-term goal. A detailed understanding of the transformations is indeed key to support the adoption of more ambitious emission targets by countries (and other actors), and to guide more effective implementation. On the one hand indeed, the revision of emission targets needs to be guided by an assessment of how drivers should change to trigger transformative shifts rather than an aggregation of marginal mitigation actions in key emitting sectors. On the other hand, converting emissions’ targets into pertinent concrete actions requires a clear and detailed vision of the main levers to be activated, which in turn depends on understanding the end goal of the required transformations as well as the standing point of the necessary conditions for implementation.
Abstract. The development of retail electricity markets was specific in different countries. There is an important condition for further development of an electric power system with active consumers and prosumers’ participation and the integration of renewable energy sources (RES), other innovative technologies and smart solutions. This study is aimed at observation of tracks of development and of retail electricity market characteristics in some countries through introducing a uniform framework for comparison. The results can help both experts and authorities to better understand the tasks and the conditions for the processes of energy transition. 1. Introduction Recent changes in the global power energy sector have been mostly shaped by the transformation of the global economy, energy policy in the developed countries and technological advances in electricityrelated technologies. The previously unavailable technologiesto the actors of the sector are digital power electronics; technologies for bulk data storage (cheaper drives), its processing (networks and network equipment with higher bandwidth) and security (blockchain algorithms). There are also technologies for real-time demand-response; tools for multivariate modelling of power systems and their components; technologies for automation of commercial relationships in the market (including smart contracts) . These advances, in their turn, re-shape the organizational basis of the industry through changes in the structure of stakeholders (emergence of prosumers and demand aggregators, dissemination of demand response practices and various complementary services) and nature of their collaboration. Alongside with above-mentioned new participants of the market, nowadays there is a constellation of new-entrants, providing various complementary services. These are digital data operators (who process the data, collected from smart metering devices, installed within the system and allow revealing consumption patterns and optimizing the whole system); providers of forecasting and prognostic services, etc. [2–5]. The described above changes lead to the situation when traditional electric utility market models, despite being considerably reliable and verified, are no longer able to fulfill all the requirements of the participants and to cope with the dynamic environment. This, in turn, brings to the necessity of elaboration of a new model, enabling to take into account mentioned changes, provide value to the actors involved, and stay sustainable in the long-run way. MEACS 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1064 (2021) 012007 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1064/1/012007 2 Meanwhile, such changes require a corresponding external environment, which would allow actors of the power sector to adapt to these trends. This environment should be flexible and incorporate a certain degree of competitiveness. Therefore, it could create adequate stimuli for the participants to invest in new technologies and re-shape their business models. We suggest a uniform framework for the comparison of different models of retail electricity market that would allow for a meaningful analysis of the experience of different countries. 2. Methodology and approach The practical implementation of the described models varies from country to country. This paper will pay particular attention to the retail markets of the following countries: USA, China, Singapore, Germany, and Russia, which represent both transition and developed economies. The choice was determined by the availability and by cohesiveness of information provided in open sources. It is worth mentioning that the analysis of each case will start with the retrospective timeline of institutional and industrial changes of the power sector, as they are essential for understanding the backbone of the model applied at a certain country. This paper has the following structure: literature review of theoretical electricity retail models, applied at the moment; tracks of retail electricity markets development provided; characteristics of retail markets in different countries to be studied: a mechanism of price regulation at the retail market; a level of concentration within the generation segment; a market share of power supply companies; a degree of value chain integration; a choice of power supply company for consumers. 3. Major models for retail electricity markets For a substantial period of time most of the electricity markets were vertically integrated, when all the elements of the value chain (starting with generation and up to the electric power supply) were controlled by a single firm (often state-owned). Gradual democratization and globalization processes were followed by the implementation of competitive elements into the existing retail market mechanisms, including the changes in the participants and cooperation between market agents. Conducted analysis of open data on the topic of electricity market liberalization [6–9] allowed one to outline three major models of retail electricity market differentiated by the level of liberalization: Monopoly, Single buyer, Competition in retail. Each of the models incorporates a unique market structure and channels for the participation of the members. Positive and negative sides of the described models are provided in the following tables (Table 1-3). Table 1. Advantages and disadvantages of the monopoly model for the electricity retail market Advantages Disadvantages Greater control of regulators over the whole system Ability to implement various state policies (absence of resistance) Simplicity Greater coordination on the side of supply Lack of choice for end-consumers (high dependence on the power supply company functioning in the area) Lack of incentives for verticallyintegrated companies to modernize and increase their efficiency Possible state interventions in pricing mechanism All price risks on the side of consumers MEACS 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1064 (2021) 012007 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1064/1/012007 3 Table 2. Advantages and disadvantages of the single buyer model Advantages Disadvantages Competition among generation companies (incentives for modernization and optimization) Price averaging through long-term contracts Regulated tariffs (determined in longterm contracts), providing sufficient investments into capacity Artificial long-term price-setting (long-term contracts may inadequately cover arising additional costs of energy suppliers) Absence of supplier choice for endconsumers All price risks on the side of consumers Table 3. Advantages and disadvantages of the competition in the retail model Advantages Disadvantages Competitive pricing (based on the supply-demand equilibrium in dynamics) Choice of supply conditions for endconsumers Possibility for creation of the deregulated market (competition based) Necessity for complicated structural and legal transformations for implementation of the model Necessity for complex infrastructural support of the system Complication of the metering system Described models of the retail electricity market are the most common in modern practice. They vary by the level of market liberalization and availability of the choice for consumers. More centralized ones are easier to control and manage, while liberalized models are more flexible and efficient in a stable institution and macroeconomic situation. Nevertheless, it is an open question on which model to choose that will be adjustable and stable under the condition of energy transition and global transformation. However, the choice of the model rests upon certain factors – both of institutional and industrial nature. These factors will be studied in detail in the following sections of the paper. 4. Comparative analysis of retail electricity markets in different countries Thorough study of the models in every chosen country will be done in this section of the paper. Country tracks of retail electricity markets development and characteristics of retail markets will be observed. 4.1. USA The development of the USA retail electricity market represents a transition from the local competitive microsystem in the early years to creation of large monopoly and after to a partial competition. Nowadays the market functions in the form of a partially competitive one, as just over 20 states have adopted this model  (Figure 1). It is worth mentioning that the specificity of the USA energy sector is determined by the tight bonds between electricity and gas markets, most of which is still exposed to high levels of state intervention. Power companies are regulated both at the federal and state levels. FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) is responsible for retail electricity market and interstate transmission, while state commissions are governing the state level market – distribution and sales segments in particular. And one more important fact is that in integrated states (where power companies are vertically integrated) transmission tariff and sales premium are calculated by state commissions basing on the economic rules. At the same time, in deregulated states (where generation is competitive, and sales premium is market-determined) transmission and distribution tariffs are regulated by state commissions [11, 12]. MEACS 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1064 (2021) 012007 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1064/1/012007 4 Figure 1. Transformation of the USA retail electricity market (Source: Authors’ summary of ). In such manner, by nowadays the USA has adopted two models of the major retail electricity market– centralized market (in two forms) and bilateral contracts (Table 4). Table 4. USA retail electricity markets [13, 14]. Centralized Market Bilateral Contracts (3) VICa (1) Retail choice (2) Mechanism of consumers’ price calculation State-regulated (“costs plus” basis) Generation tariff is marketdetermined and transmission tariff is regulated Determined Contract (either bundle or customized proposition) Concentration in generationc 5 major generating companies occupy 22% of the market CR5 = .22 Number of power supply companies 5 major power supply companies occupy 56% of the market MSi ~19.9% Value chain integration VIC Generation Transmission Distribution + Sales VIC Consumers’ choice of power supply company No Yes No Model Monopoly Competition Monopoly Implemented in AR*, CA, IA*, IN, KS, KY*, LA*, MN, MO, MT*, ND*, NE*, NM*, OK, SD*, VA, VT, WI, WV CT, DE, IL, MA, MD, ME, MI, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, TX AK, AL, AZ, CO, FL, GA, HI, ID, MS, NC, NV, SC, TN, UT, WA, WY Market share of the modelb 32% 41% 27% a : VIC – Vertically integrated company. b : market share is calculated basing on the number of consumers living in the mentioned states. c : CRi – concentration ratio of i generating companies with the biggest market share; * : these states use a hybrid model. MEACS 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1064 (2021) 012007 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1064/1/012007 5 Within the monopoly model VICs use “cost plus” pricing, which is criticized by many experts (not only from the power sector)  as this mechanism may lead to overinvestments and creates not enough stimuli for increasing efficiency. The competition model, on the other hand, provides consumers with the ability to choose the supplier and tariff plan and to develop other active strategies, including demand response, becoming prosumers, implementing energy effective solutions, etc. Independent power supply companies determine their own competitive rates for production and services, but network tariffs are still regulated by the government. This model was implemented as a reaction to the strongly regulated electricity prices (compared to the relative costs level) in certain states. A lot of consumers find this model to be rather attractive as competitive prices are usually lower compared to those at the regulated markets. However, critics of this model stress the fact that a lot of generators do not consider households as an attractive segment (due to its relatively small share in consumption) and are rarely involved into competition due to a low level of the profit margin . Fast developing new sectors (innovative energy ecosystem, intellectual integrated energy systems, prosumers’ generation, energy storage, smart microgrid, etc.) change and complicate the retail electricity market structure, strategies of participants and rules. 4.2. China China activity for developing of power sector was extensive and ambitious in last thirty years and the country catches up the other leaders except for the competitive retail market model. Starting from the 1980-s key processes of the changes there was decentralization and deregulation with the shift away from a state-regulated vertically-integrated monopoly and creation of a competitive market [16, 17, 18] (Figure 2). However, these shifts are still in progress. Figure 2. Transformation of the Chinese retail electricity market [16–21] The retail sector of the Chinese electricity market is not competitive at the moment (state owned enterprises still supply over 80% of the electricity) and consumers have no choice other than purchasing it from local power supply companies (Table 5). MEACS 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1064 (2021) 012007 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1064/1/012007 6 Table 5. The model of the Chinese retail electricity market [19, 21, 22]. Mechanism of consumers’ price calculation Long-term (20 years) contract for power supply company Concentration in generationa 5 major generating companies occupy 100% of the market CR5 = 1.00 Number of power supply companies 5 (affiliated with generators) + 300 local (function nominally) MSi~20% Value chain integration Generation Transmission + Distribution + Sales Consumers’ choice of power supply company No Model Single buyer a : CRi – concentration ratio of i generating companies with the biggest market share However, market transformation is ongoing at the moment and fast development of RES, smart city projects and other innovative sectors in energy support it. In 2016 the National Commission of Development and Reforms (2015a) published the document, which implicates further development of a competitive retail market: shift from direct supplies to competition and implementation of the “Internet of Energy” concept . 4.3. Singapore The creation of a competitive retail electricity market model in Singapore was executed in a rather abrupt time period, caused by massive foreign investment attraction, which required a corresponding infrastructure. For the period between 1995 and 2003 the country was able to shift from regulated monopoly to a competition in retail (Figure 3). Figure 3. Transformation of the Singapore retail electricity market [24, 25]. Note: PUC – Public Utilities Committee At the moment, the market model can be described as a partial competition, when only a certain part of the consumers has choice of a supplier (Table 6). However, even under the following conditions a considerable share of consumers has a choice of a power supplier, what, coupled with the openness of the government, makes the whole system more flexible and attractive for doing business. MEACS 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1064 (2021) 012007 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1064/1/012007 7 Table 6. Singapore retail electricity markets models  When power supply companies are market participants (1) When power supply companies are not market participants (2) Mechanism of consumers’ price calculation Competitive (price auction) State regulation Concentration in generation c 5 major generating companies occupy 78% of the market CR5 = .78 Number of power supply companies 26 MSi=3.8% Value chain integration Zero (all activities are decoupled) Consumers’ choice of power supply company Yes (for accepteda ): Via power supply company; Directly on the wholesale market (requires registration); Via SP No Model Competition Single buyer Market share of the modelb 70% 30% a : “accepted” are the companies with the monthly average consumption over 2.000 kWh (or bill over $400). They have an ability to decline the standard power supply and choose the supplier (data of the Energy Market Authority). b : market share is calculated basing on the volume of consumption, generated by the mentioned segment of the consumers: market and non-market participants . c : CRi – concentration ratio of i generating companies with the biggest market share 4.4. Germany The pre-reform power sector of Germany was different from all other European countries – a state monopoly on the major activities was absent per se. The market included companies with various forms of ownership – both state and private, while vertically integrated structures prevailed. Due to this, the liberalization of the market was executed via two stages. First National Power Law established a competitive model, which in practice was not viable due to a lack of essential legislative bodies. That is why later development can be described as a parallel liberalization of all value chain elements and creation of fully functional competitive market model by 2011. Figure 4. Transformation of the Germany retail electricity market [27–29]. MEACS 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1064 (2021) 012007 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1064/1/012007 8 Currently, the retail market is functioning within the competitive model with non-concentrated ownership of the assets and end-consumers have an ability to choose a power supply company (Table 7). Table 7. Germany retail electricity market model  Mechanism of consumers’ price calculation Price auction Concentration in generationa 5 major generators occupy 45% of the market CR5 = .49 Number of power supply companies Around 900 MSi~1% Value chain integration Generation + Distribution + Sales Transmission Consumers’ choice of power supply company Yes Model Competition a: CRi – concentration ratio of i generating companies with the biggest market share The current market includes a sufficient number of participants for supporting the competition: 4 big generating companies (EnBW, E.On, RWE, Vattenfall) and 1000+ small ones; 4 transmission lines operators (Ampirion, EnBW, Tennet, 50 Hertz Transmission); 890 distribution lines operators and 900+ power supply companies. Still, the German model differs from the traditional competition by the fact that generation, distribution and sales are integrated (via generators’ subsidiaries) and transmission is performed by independent operators. Innovative energy sectors (especially RES and green energy solution) have significant promotion for the development and transformation of the retail electricity market model. 4.5. Russian Federation The development of the Russian electricity market represents the transition from regulated monopoly, which constitutes a heritage of the GOELRO plan and later comprehensive plans for energy, economy, and cities in 1950-1990, implemented in the USSR, to a single buyer / competitive model (Figure 5). Now this model need to be transformed due to developed innovative solutions in the energy sector, but this process moves slower than that in many other countries. The government support the development of RES and other innovative energy niches in both zones with the retail electricity market and grid-off inhabited localities. For example, over the last years rules to support and implement domestic production of equipment for RES, payment for RES capacity and energy on the all retail electricity markets were established. But this activity meets a lot of obstacles, conflict of interests and lack of investment due to high risks and transactions costs. RAO “ES Vostoka”, “Gazprom” and other state and private companies install RES capacities or hybrid diesel-RES capacities in north regions and in grid-off inhabited localities . Some of the national parks (Kenozero and Russian Arctic in Arkhangelsk region, Basegi in Perm Krai, Tigirekskij in Altai Krai and many others) use solar panels for heating and lighting, and some other technologies of alternative energy. But at the same time majority of urban areas need significant modernization of energy supply systems, and Arctic region, Russia’s Far East and some other regions need infrastructure development. This is an opportunity to transform energy systems and retail electricity energy markets on the base of new technologies. MEACS 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1064 (2021) 012007 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1064/1/012007 9 Figure 5. Transformation of the Russian retail electricity market [32, 33]. Currently, the retail market operates in both the single buyer and competitive models with the dominance of the former (Table 8). Table 8. Russian retail electricity market model [32–34]. When electricity is bought from a guaranteeing supplier (1) When the electricity is bought from an independent power supply companya (2) Mechanism of consumers’ price calculation State-regulated price Agreement-determined Concentration in generationd 8 major generators occupy 70% of the market CR5 = .64 Number of power supply companies Local power supplier at each territory (720 in total) MSi~.1% Value chain integration Generation + Sales Transmission + Distribution (UES’ subsidiaries) Consumers’ choice of power supply company Nob Yes Model Single buyer Competition Market share of the model 69% of overall consumptionc 93% 5% of overall consumptionc 7% a: this ability is available only to non-household consumers b: in some cases, households purchase electricity not from the guaranteeing supplier – for instance, when it was liquidated. But these cases are very rare c: the overall consumption of electricity in Russia is distributed in the following way: bulk consumers – 26%, guaranteeing suppliers – 69%, independent power supply companies – 5%. d: CRi – concentration ratio of i generating companies with the biggest market share Consumers, attributed to households, do not have an opportunity to choose the supplier of energy. They have to purchase it from the guaranteeing supplier, although at a regulated price, which is lower comparing to that one for industrial and other corporate consumers (so called “cross-subsidization”, when lower price for households is compensated by higher prices for other consumer categories). At the same time, corporate consumers are functioning within the competitive model when they are able MEACS 2020 IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 1064 (2021) 012007 IOP Publishing doi:10.1088/1757-899X/1064/1/012007 10 to choose their supplier under specific conditions. Large industrial consumers can participate on the wholesale market. In these cases, pricing is purely market-driven. 5. Conclusion The above-mentioned trends in the power energy industry determine the transformation of retail electricity markets around the globe. Moreover, the cornerstone is reaching flexibility, which has to provide an adequate reaction of the market to the changes in the dynamic environment. This process of the industry liberalization is heavily dependent on the individual characteristics of national power energy sectors and economy, the specificity of state energy and economic policies, level of development of the national institutional systems, and certain external factors including technological advancement and other institutional pressures. All considered markets move to the competition. But they have the different tracks and different levels of liberalization and concentration of generation and sales. A monopoly model is still in use especially in countries with large territories and grid-off locations (USA, Russia). The government and companies with state participants play an important role for the next transformation of retail electricity markets in Russia and in China. We may conclude that further transformation of retail electricity markets will have significant specifity in each country. Innovative technologies and solution will change participants and their strategies, structure and rules of retail electricity markets. Probably characteristics and the structure of these markets will be different and the considered comparative model for analysis need further development. Further research may focus on models of the electricity retail market in other countries, including identifying patterns in the development of these models and factors of influence. In doing so, the future studies can be based on both the framework proposed in the current article and a new expanded approach. It is of particular interest to consider the transformation of models of the electricity retail market in the studied countries under the current energy transition
The Paris Agreement invited Parties to develop low-emission development strategies. This study presents national low-emission scenarios to inform such strategies for Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, EU-28, India, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Russia and the USA. We use country-level technology-rich energy-economy and integrated assessment models that include detailed representations of the energy, transport and land systems and provide insights on emissions, energy system and economic implications of low-emission pathways until 2050. We show that the low-emission pathways of most economies studied here are consistent with pathways limiting global temperature increase to well-below 2 °C, while emission reductions are achieved through uptake of renewable energy, energy efficiency improvements and electrification of energy services. The role of mitigation options like nuclear, carbon capture and storage (CCS) and advanced biofuels is differentiates across countries, depending on national priorities, specificities and resource endowments. The energy system transformation requires a pronounced reallocation of investments towards low-carbon technologies, but without raising significant affordability issues in most countries. National pathways improve the consistency between country policy plans with global temperature goals and capture structural heterogeneities and broad socio-economic considerations.
In this chapter we analyze the factors of elderly men and women’s employment as well as the most effective strategies for maintaining employment after pension (retirement) age. The main research question is the following: to what extent factors influencing the decisions to keep employment in old age and to change jobs before or at the pension age are different for men and women? To answer this question, we formulate the following hypotheses: (1) women take into account family factors more often than men when they decide whether to keep employment after retirement age; (2) probability of elderly women’s employment is increasing even at a moderate salary, while for men only a high salary is significant; (3) elderly women tend to keep the same job after retirement age whereas elderly men prefer to change a job or profession.
The chapter has the following structure. In the first section, based on Rosstat and international (OECD, ILO) data, we analyze the main trends of Russian elderly men and women’s employment, including pensioners’ employment, in comparison with foreign countries. In the second section we provide a brief description of employment policy and pension system in Russia, focusing on those aspects that may influence the decision to work in old ages. Third section presents the theoretical framework of the analysis and the results of the previous empirical research of Russian elderly employment. Fourth section focuses on the data and methodological approach of our study. The empirical part of our research is based on RLMS-HSE data for 2010-2017. Finally, in the fifth section we present and describe the empirical results.
A carbon price is considered the most cost-efficient GHG emissions reduction tool often used as part of a mature climate policy. However, Russia as well as the other countries rich in fossil fuels tend to have weak incentives for proactive low-carbon policies including carbon pricing which may lead to falling revenues in emitting industries. Can the price on carbon be implemented as part of the development strategy in fossil fuel exporting countries, including post-Communist Russia? The paper focuses on the variety of existing approaches to applying the carbon price across various energy exporting economies. Based on theoretical and empirical evidence, the paper contributes to the existing literature with the analysis of challenges and opportunities of carbon pricing in these countries and outlines key principles of a viable carbon pricing system in Russia. These principles are (a) balanced emissions coverage and support of the vulnerable industries and social groups, (b) fiscal neutrality, (c) gradualness of implementation and (d) the use of carbon offsets.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to design a framework for asset data management in power companies. The authors consider asset data management from a strategic perspective, linking operational-level data with corporate strategy and taking into account the organizational context and stakeholder expectations. Design/methodology/approach – The authors conducted a multiple case study based on a literature review and three series of in-depth interviews with experts from three Russian electric power companies.
Findings – The main challenge in asset data management for electric power companies is the increasing amount and complexity of asset data, which is frequently incomplete or inaccurately collected, hard to translate to managerial language, focused primarily on the operational level. Such fragmented approach negatively affects strategic decision-making. The proposed framework introduces a holistic approach, provides context and accountability for decision-making and attributes data flows, roles and responsibilities to different management levels.
Research limitations/implications – The limitations of our study lie in the exploratory nature of case study research and limited generalization of the observed cases. However, the authors used multiple sources of evidence to ensure validity and generalization of the results. This article is a first step toward further understanding of the issues of transformation in power companies and other asset intensive businesses. Originality/value – The novelty of the framework lies in the scope, focus and detailed treatment of asset data management in electric power companies.
This paper is an empirical study that used econometric techniques to analyze the causal relationship between income inequality and financial disturbances in developed economies. The author used annual data from panels of OECD countries. In this study, income distribution is represented by the share of GDP that accrued to the top 10 percent earners, wage share of GDP, and disposable income Gini Coefficient in annual data series. The test included three channels, through which income inequality may affect the financial system. The results suggest that the effect of income inequality on the national financial stability is ambiguous, as the study concluded that this effect is radically different according to the channel tested. The study found that a rise in income inequality has a negative impact on public finance, but it has a positive effect on the private debt market, and on the external balance from a financial stability standpoint
Purpose – The paper aims to clarify the relationship between oil products prices and factors describing the most crucial emerging trends in fuel consumption. The work is aimed to test the hypothesis that the proliferation of alternative fuel cars is a significant factor in determining the level of motor fuels prices. The influence of technical standards of oil products on the model parameters are also analysed.
Design/methodology/approach – The hypothesis testing is carried out on the basis of econometric analysis of information regarding the North-West European commodity market and the data on the registration of alternative fuel passenger vehicles. Time series are analysed for the presence of a structural shift in the parameters of model as a result of changes in the requirements of technical regulations for fuel.
Findings – The results suggest a different nature of the influence of the proliferation of alternative fuel passenger vehicles – it have little effect on diesel prices, while the indicators under study have a negative effect on the prices of motor gasoline. The construction of oil product price models has confirmed the impact of tightening the technical requirements for the parameters of dependence equations.
Practical implications – The obtained results can be used in forecasting price indicators in oil refining for strategic and investment purposes.
Originality/value – This paper fulfils an identified need to take into account the emerging global trends in fuel consumption to obtain reliable parameters for oil product prices modelling.
From 2007 to 2015 total fertility rate in Russia increased from 1.42 to 1.78, following a long period of decline in 1990-1999 and stagnation in 2000-2006. Politicians attribute this growth to a package of pro-natalist policy measures introduced in 2007 and particularly to the maternity (family) capital program, the most well-known innovation of the 2007 reform. Existing studies, although sparse, have not actually proven this point of view clearly yet. This paper aims to reveal whether the pro-natalist measures of 2007 have influenced probability of second and consequent births in Russia. Since in 2007 several family policy measures were introduced simultaneously, and the authors estimate their cumulative effect applying a set of binary logistic regressions on the panel of Russian Generations and Gender Survey data collected in 2004, 2007, and 2011. The study reveals that the probability of second and subsequent births before the introduction of policy measures does not differ significantly from that observed after it. The authors find no effect of 2007 family policy changes on probability of second and consequent births in Russia. The data shows some signs of selective influence of the 2007 policy changes on women with lower human capital and incomes, however, further studies on bigger samples are needed to prove this fact. The study extends the academic discussion and adds to the pool of empirical evidence on the pro-natalist policy effects on fertility. By demonstrating no significant effects of Russian 2007 family policy measures the paper contributes to the overcoming of existing publication bias in the field.
Traditional retail electricity market models transform under the condition of new technologies development and institutional changes in countries and worldwide. New models of the retail electricity market need to be adopted to recent requirements made by different stakeholders. The purpose of this study is to advance the understanding of transformation of the electricity retail market in different countries through introducing a uniform framework for comparison. The findings provide insights for experts and authorities on how the changes in the dynamic environment led to the emergence of new market models in six surveyed countries. Specific features of different models are highlighted to ensure optimal working conditions and incorporation with managerial practices in the industry as well as to help policy makers to understand what additional measures may boost the competition in retail electricity markets.
The chapter is devoted to the actual problem of utilization, processing, and reuse of post-consumer textile waste in contemporary cities of the world. The analysis was carried out within the framework of the concept of smart city based on the study of the experience of post-consumer textile products in contemporary cities. It is concluded that the variety of secondary applications of post-consumer textile waste and its recycling is considered a promising basis for the development of new types of eco-business. In addition, the recycling of post-consumer textiles will reduce the load on waste storage facilities, reducing the harmful effects on the environment.
Development of the national innovative systems is designated to solve a number of issues: from decrease in socio-economic inequality in countries and regions to creation of favorable environment for occurrence of new high-tech productions and diversification of industrial composition. Determination of possibilities for expanding a set of innovative types of economic activity must be scientifically substantiated since significant financial, material and human resources may be consumed for creation and support of new economic sectors in the frames of the state policy.
Made in this article is an effort to create a mechanism for revealing of promising trends in development of the innovative economic sphere with account of comparative advantages in commodity composition of export through determination of technological proximity indicators. The purpose of the article is to substantiate a possibility of using the concept of technological proximity for development of the national innovative systems.
The technological proximity indicators based on the revealed comparative advantages (RCA) of countries by commodity groups of export were used in the study. A matrix of technological proximity in the industrial fields (at a six-unit level) for 28 countries of the European Union in 2007-2018 was made.
The obtained results made it possible to reveal comparative advantages by groups of the high-tech products in EU countries in real time. The analysis of technological proximity in the industrial sector has shown the types of economic activity connected with the innovative sector, based on which a degree of countries' participation in manufacture of high-tech products was determined.
The proposed mechanism can be used at development and implementation of the national and regional policy in the sphere of innovative systems, since it allows determining the promising areas for creation and support of new high-tech productions
The historical experience has demonstrated that the major benefit provided by the Eurasian integration, i.e. the chance to restore the cooperation ties and build joint value creation chains, is diluting along with the ‘demurrage’ in implementation of pro-active integration initiatives. Insufficient intensity of cooperation processes results in ‘qwerty effects’ of increasing cost of changing the established supply chains, transit goods and trade deals. On the positive side of the corner, the heterogeneity of the Union’s economies and the unity of the national strategic priorities provide a clear path for continuing reaping benefits from the integration processes. However, the extent to which the effects are to be tangible appears to be functionally dependent on the progress in full-scale implementation of the integration initiatives: introduction of coordinated industrial policies, development strategies; harmonization and development of technological base; improvement in innovative activity and technological readiness.